What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (2023)

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Definition and meaning of capital letters

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  • More about capitalization
  • examples

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Big letters. (Compare lower case).



Navigate fluently these common grammar errors that many people stumble upon. Good luck!

Question 1 of 7

Fill in the blank: I cannot understand that ______ gave me this gift.

Words close to capital letters

upper limit, upper canada, upper canada, upper carbon, upper letter, upper letter, upper chamber, upper chinook, upper class, upper class man, upper shell

The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, edytuj Copyright © 2005 przez Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Uitgegeven puerta Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (1)All rights reserved.


Which are

big letters?

Big lettersare capitalized - larger, longer versions of letters (e.gW), as opposed to the smaller versions, which are so-calledsmall letters(asw).

Big lettersmeans the same ascapital.Big letters leavescan also be namedchairs.

Somebig lettersare simply larger, longer versions of their lowercase (like uppercase) counterparts.Wand lowercase letterswor capital letterCand lowercase lettersC), but in many cases the two versions of the letter have completely different forms, such as capital lettersAand lowercase lettersAor capital letterBand lowercase lettersB.

Capitalizing a word means changing the first letter of the word tobig letters short. For example, to capitalize a wordQuiniele(which is lowercase herePAG), you would capitalize itPAG, IQuiniele.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (2)

The state of capitalization or capitalization (or the process of converting a letter tocapital letter) is called mixing, as inCheck your article for proper punctuation and capitalization.

and english,big lettersThey are used at the beginning of words for various reasons. The standard rule in English is to use acapital letterbegin with proper nouns (which are nouns referring to specific people, places or things, i.e. someone with specific names), such asChain,Mexico, Wnintendo. using onecapital letterat the beginning of a word can change the way the reader interprets the meaning, as inQuiniele(a verb that makes something clear) andQuiniele(adjective describing someone from Poland) orappeal(fruits) iappeal(Business).

we also use onecapital letterfor the first letter of the first word in a sentence.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (3)sometimes we use onecapital letterfor the first letter of each word in the title, e.gTo all the boys I've loved before. It is sometimes mentionedmain thing.

Some acronyms and abbreviations are spelled with everyonebig letters, HowNASAWONS. The word is written in fullbig letters(asTO) is said to have been writtentapaszcapital letters.

Example:A lot of people don't bother using capital letters in text messages unless they want to emphasize something.

where has

capital letterComes from?

Conditioncapital letterhas been used since the 1730s Wordsbig lettersWsmall lettersThey come from the printing house. The process of physically printing things with printing presses involved trays calledfallenwhich have been divided into compartments for storing different types of letters (blocks with letters).What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (4)The uppercase letters contained uppercase letters, and the lowercase letters contained the so-calledsmall lettersleaves.

Knowing whether you have or not can be confusing.capital letterin some situations, but the capitalization guidelines may help.

Did you know...?

What are the other shapes associated with?capital letter?

  • capital letter (hyphenated alternative spelling)
  • capital letter (alternative spelling of two words)

What are the synonymscapital letter?

  • capital letter
  • capital
  • capital letters (when capital letters are used as a noun)

What words share a common root or word element?Capital letter?

  • big letters
  • small letters
  • small letters
  • short

What are some words that are commonly used when talkingcapital letter?

  • capitalize
  • capitalization
  • spelling
  • First
  • word
  • zinc
  • title

How are they

big lettersis used in real life?

Big lettersthey are used at the beginning of nouns and other proper nouns, at the beginning of sentences, at the beginning of words in titles and in some abbreviations.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (5)With normal use, you can write a word on it.big lettersstress.

He's back with the classics, riddles and riddles. The capital letters read APRIL 9th. 👏🏻 @taylorswift13 You deserve it so much. 💛 https://t.co/x7KsswdBPj

— anne⁰⁰ ఌ😺 (@ANNEtisocial) February 11, 2021

Identify and match uppercase and lowercase letters with these colorful underwater cards. Games make learning fun! 🐟 🐠 #IslipENL #LearningIsFun @WingElemIslip pic.twitter.com/QjUSLvuZ57

— Jaclyn Brady (@JaclynBrady17) February 5, 2021

I wonder if I'll ever go back to using capital letters for anything other than underscore.

— h☼ (@hl_cutie) July 8, 2019

try to use

big letters!

Which of the following types of words are usually writtencapital letterfirstly?

A.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (6)Names
B. the first word in the sentence
C. the first word in the title
All the previous ones

How to use capital letters in a sentence

  • Certain features of his story suggest why this may be so.

    Anti-halogens are OG anti-vaxxers|Michael Schulson|July 27, 2016|DAILY BEAST

  • And in the case of fluorine, this doubt could at least be justified.

    Anti-halogens are OG anti-vaxxers|Michael Schulson|July 27, 2016|DAILY BEAST

  • His latest book, Heretic: The Case for a Muslim Reformation, will be published in April by HarperCollins.

    Ayaan Hirsi Ali: It's our duty to keep Charlie Hebdo alive|Ayaan Hirsi Ali|8 January 2015|DAILY BEAST

  • Their friendship began when Krauss, who was chairman of the physics department at Case Western in Cleveland, visited Epstein.

    Sleazy Billionaire's double life included beach parties with Stephen Hawking| M.L. Nestel|January 8, 2015|DAILY BASTIA

  • The grand jury in the Ferguson case asks for a detailed explanation of what happened in court.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (7)

    Politicians Only Like Journalists When They're Dead|Luke O'Neil|8 Jan 2015|DAILY BEAST

  • "Maybe you don't speak my language," he said in Urdu, the most spoken language in Upper India.

    Red Year|Louis Tracy

  • The case concerned a robbery between two men named Brown and Henderson.

    Anecdote book and fun budget;|Miscellaneous

  • I suspect that in this case there was a strongly marked childish trait, a love of effect.

    Preschoolers | James Sully

  • At the top of the stem, the whorls are close together, but at the bottom they are further apart.

    How to know ferns|S. Leonard Basin

  • In the case of large plants, it sometimes happened that the cones were produced at the ends of the branches of the swamp horsetail.

    How to know ferns|S. Leonard Basin

What are lowercase and uppercase letters?

Lower case definition:Lowercase letters are all other letters that are not uppercase.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (8)

Definition of capital letter:Capital letters are the letters that represent the beginning of a sentence or proper noun.

What are lowercase letters?

In writing, most letters are lowercase. Lowercase letters are all letters that do not start a sentence or refer to a proper noun.

English alphabet kleine letras: a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z.

Examples in lower case:

  • word
  • Only lowercase letters are used in the above word.
  • The sentence above has lower case letters after the first letter of the sentence.
  • This sentence and the sentence immediately above it are all lowercase, except for the "T".

What are capital letters?

Capital letters are also known as capital letters. Capital letters tell the reader that something is important or significant.

Hoof letters of the English alphabet: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z.

Examples of capital letters:

  • jones
    • This is a proper name, so the first letter of the title and last name are capitalized.
  • main Street
    • This is a proper noun, so the first letter of each word is capitalized.

When to capitalize

In English, the first letter of each sentence is capitalized.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (9)A capital letter indicates to the reader that a new sentence is beginning.

Other uses of capital letters are described below.


All titles are considered proper nouns and require capital letters.


  • Where are you?
    • Incorrect: Miss Mabry
  • mathematics
    • Wrong: Mr. Mathematician
  • Pani Lockfield
    • Incorrect: Mrs. Lockfield
  • ma'am's grace
    • Incorrect: gracious lady
  • jankesi
    • Wrong: Miss Janks

Acronyms are a type of abbreviation. Acronyms are words formed from other letters to form a new word. However, they need capital letters so that the reader understands that these letters mean something and are not just a word.


    • North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • United Nations Children's Fund
    • underwater self-contained breathing apparatus
All proper nouns

All proper nouns must be capitalized.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (10)


  • We visited the Bowers Museum on Saturday.
    • Wrong - we visited the Bowers museum on Saturday.
  • I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower.
    • Bad: I would like to visit the Eiffel Tower.
  • Their names are Jake and Suzy.
    • Wrong: Their names are Jake and Suzy.

When to use lowercase letters

Use lowercase letters for all but the first letter in a sentence whenever capitalization is not required in a sentence.


  • Every word in this sentence, except the first word, is lower case.
  • The only words in this sentence that require a capital letter are the proper names London and Paris.

All nouns that are not proper nouns are called nouns. All nouns are lowercase (unless the noun begins a sentence).


  • eye
  • pies
  • Vogel
  • agua
  • Cielo
  • ester
  • call
  • chica
  • Kid


Set lower case:are lowercasethese letters used for nouns and internal words.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (11)

Define capital letter:capital letters (also known as capital letters).those letters that indicate the beginning of a sentence or proper noun.

In summary,

  • Uppercase and lowercase refer to all the letters used to form the English language.
  • Capital letters are used to begin sentences as well as proper nouns.
  • Lowercase letters are all letters that do not start sentences.


  • 1 What are lowercase letters?
  • 2 What are capital letters?
  • 3 When to use capital letters
    • 3.1 Securities
    • 3.2 Acronyms
    • 3.3 All proper names
  • 4 When to use lower case letters
  • 5 Summary

The truth about capitalization that programmers should know / Habr

At the North Bay Python 2018 conference, I gave a lecture on usernames. Most of the information in the report was compiled by me over 12 years of maintaining the django registry.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (12)This experience gave me much more insight into how complex "simple" things can be than I had planned.

I said at the beginning of the report that this would not be another exposé in a series of "misconceptions about X that programmers believe in". You can find any number of such disclosures. However, I do not like these elements. They mention all sorts of things that are supposedly wrong, but rarely explain why that is and what needs to be done instead. I suspect people will just read articles like this, congratulate themselves on that achievement, and then find new and interesting ways to make mistakes that were not mentioned in those articles. That's because they didn't really understand the problems that caused these errors.

Therefore, in my report, I have tried my best to explain some of the problems and how to solve them; I like this approach much better. One topic I only touched on in passing (it was just one slide and a few entries on other slides) is the complexity that can be associated with capital letters.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (13)There is an official correct answer™ for the problem in question (case insensitive comparison of identifiers) and in the talk I gave the best solution I know of using only the standard python library.

However, I briefly touched on the deeper complications of the Unicode case, and I want to take the time to describe the details. This is interesting, and understanding it will help you make decisions when designing and writing text-processing code. That's why I'm offering you something that goes against the articles "misconceptions about X that programmers believe" - ​​"the truth that programmers should know".

One more thing: Unicode is full of terminology. In this article, I will mainly use the definitions of "uppercase" and "lowercase" because the Unicode standard uses these terms. If you like other terms like lowercase/uppercase, that's fine. I will also use the term "symbol" a lot, which some may find incorrect. Yes, in Unicode the concept of "character" isn't always what people expect, so it's often better to avoid it by using other terms.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (14)However, in this article, I will use the term as it is used in Unicode to describe an abstract entity about which assertions can be made. If it's important I'll use more specific terms like "code point" to explain.

There are more than two records.

Speakers of European languages ​​are used to using capital letters in their language to denote specific things. For example, in English [and Russian] we usually start sentences with a capital letter and usually continue with a lowercase letter. Proper nouns also begin with a capital letter, and many acronyms and abbreviations are capitalized.

And we usually think that there are only two records. There is "A" and there is "a". One big, one small, right?

However, there are three cases in Unicode. There's a top, a bottom, and there's a title field [title field]. Names are spelled this way in English.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (15)For example, Avengers: Infinity War. To do this, the first letter of each word is usually capitalized (and depending on various rules and styles, some words, such as articles, are not capitalized).

The Unicode standard gives this example of a capital letter: U+01F2 D LATIN CAPITAL LETTER WITH SMALL Z. It looks like this: Dz.

Such characters are sometimes necessary to mitigate the negative consequences of one of Unicode's early design decisions: compatibility with existing text encodings in both directions. For Unicode, it would be more convenient to construct strings using the standard's character concatenation capabilities. However, in many older systems, space is already reserved for prepared sequences. For example, in the ISO-8859-1 ("latin-1") standard, the character "é" has the prepared form 0xe9. In Unicode, it is better to write this letter with a separate "e" and accent. However, to ensure full bi-directional compatibility with existing encodings such as latin-1, Unicode also assigns code points to predefined characters.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (16)For example, U+00E9 LATIN SMALL LETTER E Z ACUTE.

Although the code position of this character is the same as a 1-byte Latin value, it should not be relied upon. Unicode character encodings are unlikely to preserve these positions. For example, in UTF-8, U+00E9 is written as the byte sequence 0xc3 0xa9.

And of course there are characters in pre-existing encodings that required special treatment with both uppercase and lowercase, so they were included in Unicode "as is". To check, search your favorite Unicode database for characters in the Lt category ("Letter, title letter").

There are several ways to establish registration.

The Unicode standard (§4.2) lists three different definitions of capital letters. Perhaps choosing one of the three will make your programming language right for you; otherwise, your choice will depend on the specific purpose. Here are the definitions:

  1. A character is uppercase if it belongs to the category Lu ("Letter, capital letter") and lowercase if it belongs to the category Ll ("Letter, lowercase letter").What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (17)The standard recognizes the limitations of this definition: any specificity must be assigned to only one of the categories. For this reason, many characters that "should" be uppercase or lowercase will not meet this requirement because they fall into a different category.
  2. The character is uppercase if it inherits the Uppercase property and lowercase if it inherits the Lowercase property. It is a combination of the definition of a with other properties of the character, including case.
  3. A character is uppercase if it doesn't change when you type it. A character is lowercase if it does not change when a lowercase assignment is applied. A fairly general definition, but it can also behave in non-intuitive ways.

If you are working with a limited subset of characters (especially letters), 1 definition may be enough for you. If your repertoire is broader and includes characters that look like letters that are not letters, the second definition may be right for you.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (18)This is also recommended by the Unicode standard, §4.2:

Programmers who manipulate Unicode strings should work with string functions such as isLowerCase (and its functional cousin LowerCase) if they are not working directly on character properties.

The function mentioned here is defined in §3.13 of the Unicode standard. Formally, the third definition uses the isLowerCase and isUpperCase functions from §3.13, defined in terms of fixed items in toLowerCase and toUpperCase, respectively.

If your programming language has functions to check or convert individual strings or characters, it is worth checking which of the listed definitions are used in the implementation. In case you're wondering, Python's isupper() and islower() methods use the second definition.

You can't understand a character's name based on their appearance or name.

By the appearance of many characters, you can understand what case they are.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (19)For example, "A" is capitalized. This is evidenced by the name of the symbol: "CAPITAL LATINA". However, sometimes this method doesn't work. Let's assume the position of code U+1D34. It looks like this: ᴴ. In Unicode, it's called the UPPERCASE H MODIFIER. So it's capitalized, right?

It actually inherits the Smallcase property, so by definition #2 is lowercase, even though it visually resembles an uppercase H and its name contains the word "UPPERCASE".

Some characters have no case at all.

The definition of 135 in §3.13 of the Unicode standard says:

C is case-sensitive if and only if C has a Lowercase or Uppercase property, or if the value of General_Category is Titlecase_Letter .

So many Unicode characters, in fact most of them, are case insensitive. Questions about your case are useless and are not affected by case changes. However, we can get an answer to this question from definition #3.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (20)

Some characters behave as if they have multiple capital letters

It follows that if you use definition #3 and ask whether an uppercase or lowercase letter is an uppercase or lowercase letter, you'll get a "yes" answer.

The Unicode standard provides an example (Table 4-1, line 7) of the U+02BD MODIFYING LETTER REVERSED COMMA (which looks like this: ʽ). It has no inherited properties that are case insensitive, and it is not in the Lt category, so it is not case sensitive. However, converting to uppercase doesn't change that, and converting to lowercase doesn't, so by definition 3 answers yes to both questions: "Do you write in uppercase?" and "are you writing in lowercase?"

This seems like a lot of unnecessary confusion, but the point is that definition #3 works with any sequence of Unicode characters, which simplifies the algorithms for converting letters to uppercase and lowercase (characters without letters are simply converted to each other).

Context dependent case

You might think that if Unicode conversion tables cover all characters, that conversion is just a matter of finding the right place in the table.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (21)For example, the Unicode database says that U+0041 LATIN CAPITAL A U+0061 LATIN SMALL LETTER A will be lowercase. Simple, right?

An example where this approach doesn't work is Greek. The character Σ, which is U+03A3 GREEK LETTER SIGMA, when converted to lowercase is mapped to two different characters depending on where it occurs in the word. If it is at the end of a word, it is ς (U+03C2 ENDING SIGMA GREEK LOWER LETTERS) in lower case. Elsewhere it is σ (U+03C3 SIGMA IN GREEK LOWER LETTERS).

This means that the notation has no one-to-one relationship or transitivity. Another example is ß (U+00DF LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S or escet). In capital letters, this would be "SS", although it is now spelled differently (ẞ, U+1E9E LATIN CAPITAL SHARP). Converting "SS" to lowercase yields "ss", so (using Unicode terminology for case conversion): toLowerCase(toUpperCase(ß)) != ß.

A specific case of a town

Different languages ​​have different case conversion rules.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (22)The most common example: i (U+0069 LOWER LATIN I) and I (U+0049 CAPITAL LATIN I) interchange in most but not all locales. In the locale az and tr (Turkish), the uppercase i is İ (U+0130 LATIN CAPITAL I WITH UPPER DOT) and the lowercase I is ı (U+0131 LATIN LITTLE CAPITAL I WITHOUT DOT I). Sometimes correct notation really does mean the difference between life and death.

Unicode itself does not support all possible case conversion rules for all locales. In the Unicode database, there are only general rules for converting all characters independent of locale settings. There are also special rules for some languages ​​and complex forms: Lithuanian languages, Turkish languages, some features of the Greek language. Everything else doesn't exist. This is mentioned in §3.13 of the standard and country-specific conversion rules are recommended if necessary.

An example that will be familiar to English speakers is the case of some names. "o'brian" should become "O'Brian" (not "O'brian").What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (23)However, in this case, "is" should be replaced with "is", not "is". Another example not included in Unicode is the Dutch character "ij", which, when converted to uppercase, must be converted to uppercase if it occurs at the beginning of a word. Thus, a large bay in the Netherlands would be "IJsselmeer" in the eponymous case, not "IJsselmeer". Unicode includes the characters IJ U+0132 LATIN LIGATURE IJ and ij U+0133 LITTLE LATIN IJ if you need them. By default, case conversion converts them to each other (although Unicode normalization forms that use match equivalence split them into two separate characters).

A case-insensitive comparison requires case conversion

Coming back to the material presented in the report. The complexity of Unicode's case handling means that case-insensitive comparisons are not possible using the standard case-conversion functions found in many programming languages.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (24)For such comparisons, Unicode has the concept of case folding, and §3.13 of the standard defines the toCaseFold and isCaseFolded functions.

You might think that folding to case is the same as converting to lower case, but it's not. The Unicode standard states that a double uppercase string is not necessarily lowercase. Cherokee language is given as an example: there, in a line written in double capital letters, the characters will also appear in capital letters.

One of the slides in my white paper implements the Unicode White Paper #36 recommendations in Python as fully as possible. The NFKC is normalized and then the casefold() method (only available in Python 3+) is called on the resulting string. Still, some edge cases fail, and that's not exactly what is recommended for comparing IDs. First, the bad news: Python doesn't provide enough Unicode properties to filter out characters that aren't in XID_Start or XID_Continue, or characters that have the Default_Ignorable_Code_Point property.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (25)As far as I know, it does not support the NFKC_Casefold mapping. There is also no easy way to use the modified NFKC UAX #31§5.1.

The good news is that most of these extreme cases do not involve any real security risk from the characters in question. Folding the case is basically not defined as a normalization-preserving operation (hence the NFKC_Casefold mapping, which is normalized back to NFC after the case is folded). In general, when comparing, you don't care if both strings are normalized after preprocessing. What matters is whether the preprocessing is inconsistent and whether it guarantees that only strings that "should" be different later will be different afterwards. If this applies to you, you can manually renormalize after adding uppercase and lowercase letters.

enough for now

This article, like the previous report, is not exhaustive and it is almost impossible to include all this material in one publication. I hope this has been a helpful overview of the complexity of this topic and that you find enough references to search for more information.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (26)So basically you can stay here.

Wouldn't you be naive to expect other people to stop writing "misconceptions about X that programmers believe" and start writing articles like "the truth programmers should know"?

What is the capital letter on the keyboard?

The first thing a computer user gets is a keyboard and mouse. The ability to use various functions using these attributes allows you to solve tasks quickly. If you ask a beginner what capital letters are, they'll probably point to the keys above. In fact, this is far from the case.

the content of the article

  • Understanding uppercase and lowercase letters on the keyboard
  • where is the capital letter
  • How to change the case of letters on the keyboard

What are the uppercase and lowercase letters on the keyboard?

These concepts have come down to us since the days of typewriters.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (27)When writing, ordinary type was done in the computer's standard position, which was called the down position, and capital letters were applied to the paper as the pressure rods were repositioned, moving them to the up position. The keyboards of modern mobile and stationary printing devices are equipped with this function.

By using the functional "Shift" button to switch from one mode to another, the PC user can switch to uppercase or uppercase when writing texts, depending on the substantive requirements. At the same time, numbers represent punctuation marks or other symbols used when printing documents.In other words, uppercase is a printing mode that converts letters to uppercase and numbers to symbols.The one below is just an image of numbers and letters.

where is the capital letter

There are two keys on the keyboard for switching from one print mode to another: one in the lower left corner and one in the lower right corner.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (28)This is done for the convenience of fast typing. If the capital letter is on the right, the left side is used.When changing, press simultaneously first "Shift" and then the desired character.And when the desired character is on the left, vice versa. If it is convenient for the user to press both keys with one hand, he will do it, for example, to display a comma!

ATTENTION!Some mobile device keyboards may only have one "Shift" key. This is due to the compact size of office devices.

The ease of use of the upper mode allows you to quickly change the function of the desired symbol from one position to another. Also on the left, above the "Shift" button, there is a key labeled "Caps Lock", which has the same functionality, but a different principle of operation.

Methods of sliding keyboards

There are two switching modes when writing texts:

  • short-term;
  • TongueWhat are uppercase and lowercase letters? (29)

The first of these methods switches the keyboard only when you press the "Shift" key. When released by the user, printing continues in normal uppercase mode.

For the second method, once you hit the "Caps Lock" button, you can switch to uppercase and type in uppercase letters until you no longer use them.A separate keyboard indicator lights up when this mode is enabled and stays on until the specified key is pressed again, confirming the transition to uppercase.

IMPORTANT!When "Caps Lock" is on, using the "Shift" button has the opposite effect: normal characters when pressed and capital letters when released.

Long mode is used when writing titles or highlighting article titles.

With the ability to quickly switch from one capital letter to another, PC users can easily enter the required text by quickly inserting the required characters and capital letters.What are uppercase and lowercase letters? (30)

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